Chicken Wing Lab

Last week we studied a chicken wing online. We learned about how a chicken wing relates to what we are learning. This lab was meant for us to be prepared for our cat dissection that we will soon be doing after we return from out break. We watched a video of a chicken wing getting dissected, and it showed all of the parts that are in a chicken wing, including tendons, meat, and the skin. Quite honestly, it made me hungry, but it was very informative! I never knew that there was so much that came with a chicken wing, and that were so many tendons, and muscles. I will never eat a chicken wing the same way ever again (when I’m not a complete vegetarian).

The video explained the procedures that are needed in order to dissect the wing successfully.

  1. Rinse the wing, and pat dry
  2. Carefully place the wing on the dissection tray
  3. Being by making a small incision on the top of the wing
  4. Cut muscles from the skin
  5. Pull back the skin, and look at the fat
  6. Observe the tendons and muscles
  7. Remove the tendons and muscles from the bone
  8. Break a bone from the chicken wing
  9. Observe the bone marrow
  10. Look at the ligaments and the bones
  11. Clean up

This chicken wing lab helped me to learn how muscles work with each other. Without these muscles, we would not be able to bend our arms, or any joints and limbs smoothly. There are two muscles: flexor muscles ,and extensor muscles. For example, the chicken wing resembles the elbow. When you pull on the tricep, the elbow will straighten out. When the bicep pulls, the elbow will fold. The fat on the wing insulates, and protects the chicken. Also, cartilage helps with the movements of the muscles.

IMG_1819.JPG
CHICKENS!! 

Neurotransmitter Lab

In class, we attempted to do a lab to learn about the relationships between different muscles in the body. Why did I say “attempt?” Well, our lab did not really work out the way we all wanted it to. We were testing to see how our agonist and antagonist muscles allow us to perform certain tasks with smoothness. According to Backyard Brains, your agonist muscles cause movements by contracting. Our antagonist muscles oppose the specific motion.

Each muscles has a relationship with another muscle when someone moves a certain body part. We are are able to move gracefully, and with balance because of these two muscles. Even when we are not moving, our muscles are still working for us.

In order to do this lab, we had to place 2 sticker electrode patches on our partner’s biceps and then connect two alligator clips from the Muscle “Spikerbox.” We also added two to the side of her triceps, and then on the back of her hand.

 
IMG_2737IMG_2740
Then, we connected our phone or our computer to the Spikerbox. The SpikeRecorder software was already downloaded on our computer and phone.

After, we turned on both EMG channels on the Spikerbox. At this step, our experiment did not work the way that we wanted it to. When my partner contracted and retracted her muscles, the software would not show waves, but showed sound waves. For example, it would show if she talked. She tried to do a push up, but that did not affect the waves, and she also tried to wave, but that did not record anything either.

IMG_2738

I cannot fully answer the questions of the procedures accurately, but there is enough information to figure out which muscles have relationships with other muscles. When we wave our arms, the triceps are the agonist muscles, and the biceps are the antagonist muscles. The triceps contract, and the biceps loosen, and oppose the opposite motion. When we do a push up, When we go down, our triceps are the agonist muscles, and the biceps are the antagonist muscles. When we go up, its reversed, and our triceps are the antagonist muscles, and our biceps are the agonist muscles.

Testing Our Touch!!

In class, we tested our touch, or in longer terms: our sensory receptors for touch. Our skin has many sensory receptors that allow us to feel objects. Our sensory receptors also respond to pain, temperature, and pressure. To actually measure our sensitivity, we used a paper clip, and poked our partner in the finger with it. (sounds violent, but I promise it wasn’t!)

Here are the steps to finding how sensitive we actually are:

We gently touched the paper clip to our partner’s fingertip, making the paper clip smaller as we went on. We then switched the pattern in which the paper clip touched our partners’ fingertips (two ends or one end of the paperclip). We recorded how many ends they actually felt. We continued this process on their forearm, and the back of their hand.

Here are some  pictures of the lab:

 

IMG_2124.JPGIMG_2120.JPG

Here is the data I collected for fingertips, forearm, and back of the hand:

IMG_2171-2.JPG

 

IMG_2172.JPG

 

IMG_2173-3

 

I predicted that our fingertips would be the most sensitive, and could sense objects more, since we are very used to touching objects with our hands. I guessed correct, and my partner detected the right amount of paperclips ends more than 20 times.

I believe that humans have more sensitive areas than other areas of the body because those areas need to be familiar with different objects, so our nervous system will identify those objects more.

My partner and I guessed that we would not have the same density of touch receptors in a given area because everyone has different sensitivity. We predicted this incorrectly, because we both detected the wrong number of ends for every area of the body.

I believe that different activities could affect our touch receptors because our fingertips would be very familiar with that one object that you may use during the activity. We would be sensitive to those objects. Also I believe that his may higher our sensitivity.

Visit my partner’s blog!!!

 

 

 

Digestion Case Study

The case study that we did in class was very informative and taught me a lot about what carbohydrates really are. I never knew that carbs are actually in almost everything that we eat! We read a case study involving two girls that talked about their meal plans for the day, and what foods have carbs.

In class, we studied about two girls that learned about a vaccine that is given to cattle in order to reduce their methane output. They then wanted to learn more about carbohydrates, and how they affect our bodies, and the earth.

The girls gave a list of what they ate, and we chose the foods that included carbs, and the ones that do not. We concluded that every food has carbs except meat, or the tuna the girl ate. The list of food included Cheerios, oat bran, a latte with skim milk, and a salad with various vegetables.

If one looks at the list of the food that they ate, one could figure out that all food that is made from plants contain carbohydrates. Photosynthesis creates sugars in the food, which  are not broken down very easily. The girls looked at some of the nutrition labels of their food that they have eaten, and saw what percentage of their Powerbar are simple sugars. The percentage is about 31%. Simple sugars fiber, and starch are that simple sugars are broken down into energy for the body to use. Starches are considered complex carbohydrates, and fibers are complex carbs and cannot be digested by the body.

The ingredients in the Powerbar are separated into different categories:

Simple Sugars included salt and glycerin

Starches include rice crisps, corn syrup, brown rice, and peanuts

Fiber include oat bran

Carbs that would produce gas is the milk protein isolate.

Untitled Presentation-2

 

Healthy Retirement

In class, we read a case study about a married couple who have been feeling difficulties within their bodies. In the case study it was found that the couples actually have a numerous amount of problems that are having a unhealthy affect to their bodies, especially their hearts. The couple is planning to go on a cruise, not knowing about their health issues. As Nancy, the wife, is packing and cleaning up the house for the barbecue they are about to host, she starts to say that her back is painful. We learn that Nancy is still very fit, and in shape. She does have to do hormone therapy for her hysterectomy. We then learned that Jim recently had a massive heart attack, and he takes medication for his blood pressure, as well as aspirin. Also, Jim is a big smoker, so he is not helping his present conditions. Nancy receives her test results from the health and wellness center, and they come out abnormal, yet she does not know what a lot of the results mean.

Taken from A Healthy Retirement? Case Study
Taken from A Healthy Retirement? Case Study
Healthy and Not-so-Healthy things about Jim and Nancy
Healthy and Not-so-Healthy things about Jim and Nancy

While they are away on their cruise, they are eating a lot of food, so they plan to walk around the ship to stay fit. Although this sounds like a good way to exercise, and it may sound healthy for the couple, Nancy starts to complain about how she is very tired. At first, the couple treated as if it was not serious. Then, while she was explaining her issues, a doctor was overhearing their conversation. She mentioned that she has symptoms of Angina, which is a bad chest pain, from limited blood flow.

According to their healthy and not-so-healthy things we know about each of them, Jim is at risk for another heart attack because he is older, he is overweight, and smokes. All of these can increase the risk of heart attacks. Jim is at risk for lung cancer, diabetes, stroke, and osteoporosis. Nancy is also at risk for heart attacks because her test results are out of range. Also her lipid levels are high.

Information that would be very helpful would be to know what their diets are like, and if their family has had any issues regarding heart problems. Diet and family history are important to know because they are big characteristics of heart diseases.

Homeostasis Lab

The purpose of this lab was to recognize conditions that are needed to keep one’s body in balance, and homeostasis. The purpose was to see exercise can affect the body in its body temperature, heart rate, skin, and perspiration.

First, we took measurements of someone from the group doing jumping jacks, and made observations of their skin color and sweat. Also we measure the her heart rate, and how her blood pressure using a pulse oximeter, blood pressure kit, and heart rate kit. We did this for a total of six minutes and made observations of her body reacted to stay in homeostasis. The data that we resulted with was that as the time went on, blood pressure and heart rate increased, body temperature went down, and the body’s color changed from pale to pink.

We concluded that all that occurred to the student happened because the body was trying to cool off with sweat, or the body’s blood pressure would increase, and pump more oxygen to the blood to provide for the blood. This is also what occurred while the body was changing color. Heart rate also increased because the body was exercising and blood was moving faster throughout the body. All that happened concluded from homeostasis, and the body trying to remain constant, while being active.

Image by Mk2010
Image by Mk2010